Birder's Guide

OCT 2017

Birder's Guide is the American Birding Association's newest publication. Each issue focuses on a key subject, providing tips from experienced birders on a wide variety of topics like Travel, Listing & Taxonomy, Gear, and Conservation & Community.

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Page 43 of 51

42 Birder's Guide to Listing & Taxonomy | October 2017 Check-list Supplement Redux, v. 2017 back into Northern Flicker, and lumping Bicknell's Thrush back into Gray-cheeked Thrush. Major revisions of higher-level hummingbird and vireo taxonomy are also anticipated. Many thanks to Jon Dunn, Oscar Johnson, Paul Lehman, Cody Porter, and Tom Schulenberg for assisting with the preparation of this manuscript. –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– GLOSSARY Hybrid Swarm. A large population of organisms that derives from interbreeding between two other - wise distinct populations. "Olympic Gull" is a well-known hybrid swarm of Glaucous-winged and Western gulls. Nominate. The nominate subspecies is the subspe - cies that shares its scientific name with the spe- cies as a whole. For instance, Empidonax trail- lii traillii is the nominate subspecies of Willow Flycatcher. Pronounced NAHM-uh-nit. Paraphyletic. A taxonomic grouping whose mem - bers are not each other's closest relatives. This is generally discouraged among taxonomists. For a great explanation of this concept, see Nick Block's article in the 2015 issue of Birder's Guide to Listing & Taxonomy . Sequence. The sequence in which species appear on a checklist reveals evolutionary relationships. Generally speaking, the closer two species are to one another in the checklist sequence, the more closely related to one another. Not to be confused with order, which is a taxonomic level between family and class. Sympatric. Describes two taxa that overlap in range. Sensu lato . In the broad sense. For example, "Canada Goose sensu lato " refers to what we called Canada Goose before the split—it includes Cackling Goose. Sensu stricto . In the strict sense. For instance, "Canada Goose sensu stricto " means what we call Canada Goose today, after the split—just the large birds. Sympatric speciation. The evolution of two species from one while in geographic contact with one another. Taxa. Plural of taxon. A taxon is a biological group or classification of organisms. Classes, orders, families, genera, species, and subspecies are all various levels of taxon. Taxonomic. Pertaining to taxonomy, which is the study of classification.

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